Chemical analysis techniques include:
- Spark-OES (Optical emission spectrometer) – for bulk elemental analysis of steels, stainless steels, cast irons, copper, aluminium, cobalt, nickel, tin and zinc alloys.
- ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma – Optical Emission Spectrometer) – for bulk analysis of small samples, analysing to very low concentrations.
- Infared combustion (LECO) – for carbon and sulphur, and oxygen hydrogen and nitrogen small samples.
- XRF (X-ray fluorescence) – for analysing nickel alloys and semi-quantitively analysing all alloy systems..